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Causas de Enfermedad Para el Ser Primitivo

1) El efecto de un espíritu maligno que se posesiona del cuerpo.

2) La obra de espíritus o dioses ofendidos. .

3) La obra de una persona fallecida (su espíritu) que ha sido ofendida.

4) La labor de un enemigo humana, viviente, que posee poderes sobrenaturales y se comunica o influencia a los espíritus malignas (brujo, .hechicero, ~etc).

 

Factores Necesarios para-que la Magia del Hechicero sea Efectiva según: Claude Levi-Strauss (Antropólogo y Padre del Estructuralismo)

a) Que el hechicero crea en su propia magia.

b) El paciente (o víctima) crea en los poderes sobrenaturales del hechicero,

c) El grupo cultural proporcione el trasfondo (o escenario) adecuado, que actua corno refuerzo positivo.

(La historia de Quesalid es muy ilustrativa...)

 

Estrategias del Hechicero o “Shaman”

1) Ahuyentar al espíritu maligno.

2) Incomodar al espíritu que se ha posesionado del cuerpo.

3) Aplacar a los dioses ofendidos

4) Contrarrestar la magia del hechicera enemigo.

(Esto explica el aspecto horripilante, la vestimenta estrambótico, bótica, los ademanes y sonidos intimidantes la utilización de posiones amargas, u objetora hediondos, rituales, cánticos secretos, trances autohipnóyicos, convulsiones histéricas, trucos deliberados, etc).

 

- Post hoc,  Ergo propterhoc.

Después de ello, luego (o por lo tanto) por ello.

Resultados

- Empirismo, y superstición.

- Algunos conocimientos a base de ensayo y error.

 

 


The Earliest Human Relatives

Alternative names. As we've seen, paleontologists disagree about how many different species should be recognized in the human fossil record. The minimum number of species names that are generally accepted is listed in the left-hand column, while the one on the right shows to which of them the larger number of names accepted in this volume corresponds.

Avstralopithecus afarensis

Australopithecus afarensis

Australopithecus africanus

Austrálopithecus africanus

Australopithecus robustus

Paranthropus robustus

Australopithecus boisei

Paranthropus boisei

Paranthropus aethiopicus

Homo habilis

Homo habilis

Homo rodolfensis

Homo erectus

Homo erectus

Homo ergaster

Archaic" Horno sapiens

Homo heidelbergensis

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis

Homo neanderthalensis

Homo sapiens sapiens

Homo sapiens

 

Paranthropus ecology in eastern Africa

Kenya and Tanzania, and in southern Ethiopia as well. These sites range in age from about 2.4 million to 1 million years, hence straddling the rather short period from which Paranthropus fossils are known in South Africa.

During Bed i times the Olduvai basin was occupied by a lake, fed by streams that drained from highlands nearby. The human fossils are found in the lakeside sediments. Around the lake reed beds flourished, yielding away from the lake to trees and finally to a rather arid grassland. In the Omo basin of Ethiopia, Paranthropus-yielding deposits span a period in which the climate dried considerably; on the open plains vegetation became sparser with time, though forest presumably remained available along watercourses. 

 

 

The most plausible scheme of evolucion relationships among che species of Australopithecus and Paranthropus.  The heavy bars represent the known time range of cach species, and che lighter linees the proposed relationships among them.